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Clinical Investigations in Critical Care |

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Due to Andes Virus in Temuco, Chile*: Clinical Experience With 16 Adults

Constanza Castillo, MD; Jorge Naranjo, MD; Alvaro Sepúlveda, MD; Gonzalo Ossa, MD; Howard Levy, MD, PhD, FCCP
Author and Funding Information

*From the Department of Internal Medicine (Drs. Castillo, Naranjo, Sepúlveda, and Ossa), Temuco Teaching Hospital and Faculty of Medicine Universidad de la Frontera, Temuco, Chile; and University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center (Dr. Levy), Albuquerque, NM.

Correspondence to: Constanza Castillo, MD, Department of Internal Medicine, Medicine Faculty, Universidad de la Frontera, M. Montt 116 Temuco, Chile; e-mail: eureka@telsur.cl



Chest. 2001;120(2):548-554. doi:10.1378/chest.120.2.548
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Study objectives: To describe the clinical features and laboratory abnormalities of 16 adults with confirmed Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) due to Andes virus in Temuco, Chile.

Design: A retrospective chart review abstracting clinical, radiologic, laboratory, and epidemiologic data.

Setting: ICU of the university teaching hospital in Temuco, Chile.

Patients: Sixteen patients with HPS treated between 1997 and 1999.

Results: Patients were aged from 19 to 45 years, 82% were men, and 88% were farm or timber workers with occupational acquisition of HPS. After an incubation period ranging from 5 to 25 days, a prodromal influenza-like phase frequently was accompanied by abdominal symptoms. From 1 to 7 days later, respiratory insufficiency and hemodynamic instability suddenly appeared. In 81%, hemorrhage was evident; in 63%, moderate-to-severe bleeding occurred. The most prominent laboratory abnormalities were hemoconcentration, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, altered partial thromboplastin time (PTT), creatine kinase, transaminases, and hyponatremia. Creatinine elevation was common, with clinical importance in two patients. All patients had severe hypoxemia and pulmonary edema. Fifteen patients received supportive treatment, and 5 patients were treated with corticosteroids. The mortality rate was 43.8%.

Conclusions: Bad prognostic factors appeared to be severe hypotension, lower Pao2/fraction of inspired oxygen values, prolonged PTT, hemorrhage, greater volume load, and profuse bronchorrhea. The effects of treatment with corticosteroids could not be determined. Hemorrhage and renal involvement were common in our patients, features not often described in the North American literature of Sin Nombre virus HPS.


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