Abbreviations: AC = adenocarcinoma;
BHT = butylated hydroxytoluene; MCA = 3-methylcholanthrene;
PGI2 = prostacyclin; PGE2 = prostaglandin E2
chronic inflammation associated with COPD enhances lung cancer risk.
However, because of the overwhelming contribution of cigarette smoking
to lung cancer etiology, this epidemiologic association is not strong.
The incidence of adenocarcinoma (AC), which accounts for one third of
all lung cancer and is the only kind of lung cancer that develops in
nonsmokers (10% of male lung cancer cases and 20% of women), is the
fastest rising lung cancer. Early markers for AC do not exist, and the
prognosis is dire.