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Clinical Investigations: SLEEP AND BREATHING |

Snoring, Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension, and Growth Retardation of the Fetus*

Karl A. Franklin, MD, PhD, FCCP; Per Åke Holmgren, MD, PhD; Fredrik Jönsson, MD; Nils Poromaa, MD; Hans Stenlund, PhD; Eva Svanborg, MD, PhD
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*From the Departments of Respiratory Medicine (Drs. Franklin and Jönsson), Gynecology and Obstetrics (Drs. Holmgren and Poromaa), and Epidemiology and Public Health (Dr. Stenlund), University Hospital, Umeå; and the Department of Clinical Neurophysiology (Dr. Svanborg), Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Correspondence to: Karl A. Franklin, MD, PhD, FCCP, Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital, SE-901 85 Umeå, Sweden; e-mail: Karl.Franklin@lung.umu.se



Chest. 2000;117(1):137-141. doi:10.1378/chest.117.1.137
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Study objective: Our purpose was to study the relationship between snoring and pregnancy-induced hypertension and growth retardation of the fetus.

Design: Retrospective, cross-sectional, consecutive case series.

Setting: The Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden.

Participants and measurements: On the day of delivery, 502 women with singleton pregnancies completed a questionnaire about snoring, witnessed sleep apneas, and daytime fatigue. Data concerning medical complications were taken from the women’s casebooks.

Results: During the last week of pregnancy, 23% of the women reported snoring every night. Only 4% reported snoring before becoming pregnant. Hypertension developed in 14% of snoring women, compared with 6% of nonsnorers (p < 0.01). Preeclampsia occurred in 10% of snorers, compared with 4% of nonsnorers (p < 0.05). An Apgar score ≤ 7 was more common in infants born to habitual snorers. Growth retardation of the fetus, defined as small for gestational age at birth, had occurred in 7.1% of the infants of snoring mothers and 2.6% of the remaining infants (p < 0.05). Habitual snoring was independently predictive of hypertension (odds ratio [OR], 2.03; p < 0.05) and growth retardation (OR, 3.45; p < 0.01) in a logistic regression analysis controlling for weight, age, and smoking.

Conclusions: Snoring is common in pregnancy and is a sign of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Snoring indicates a risk of growth retardation of the fetus.


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