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Preoperative Cardiac Preparation*

Howard Belzberg, MD, FCCP; Avraham I. Rivkind, MD
Author and Funding Information

*From the Division of Trauma/Critical Care, Department of Surgery, Los Angeles County + University of Southern California Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA.

Correspondence to: Howard Belzberg, MD, FCCP, LAC + USC Medical Center, 1200 N State St, Room 9900, Los Angeles, CA 90033-4525; e-mail: belzberg@hsc.usc.edu



Chest. 1999;115(suppl_2):82S-95S. doi:10.1378/chest.115.suppl_2.82S
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Preoperative preparation of the cardiac patient is based on matching the cardiac reserve to the blood flow demands imposed by surgical stress and the underlying disease state. Evaluation must include functional assessment of any coronary artery disease or other organic cardiac disease that may place myocardial tissue at risk of ischemia as demand for cardiac output increases. Monitoring should be individualized based on anticipated problems and the risk assessment of the patient. Preoperative therapy should include maneuvers that reduce congestive heart failure, optimize volume status, and provide adequate cardiac output to deliver oxygen sufficient to meet or exceed demand. Underlying electrical and metabolic abnormalities should be corrected and controlled in the perioperative period. Long-term therapy should be evaluated and modified in the context of the anesthetic and surgical plan. Preventive interventions such as fluid loading and low-dose dopamine should be considered prior to surgery.


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