Hospital-acquired pneumonia is a serious illness with substantial morbidity and mortality. Management of this illness is challenging for the physician and a number of diverse issues must be considered when initiating therapy. Guidelines for the treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia have been developed in Canada and the United States. A questionnaire sent to infectious disease physicians or clinical microbiologists in 29 countries showed that Australia, Sweden, and France had national guidelines in addition to Canada and the United States, while Hong Kong and France had single hospital-based guidelines. These guidelines are reviewed and some of the controversial issues relating to nosocomial pneumonia are discussed.