Pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) without evidence of dissemination is uncommon in HIV-infected patients. Five cases were observed over a 2-year period. All patients had AIDS and the median CD4 cell count at the time of presentation was 90 x 106/L. Radiographic patterns included unilobar alveolar infiltrates or diffuse alveolar densities. All patients had a favorable clinical response to antimycobacterial chemotherapy with a median follow-up period of 10 months. MAC should be considered in HIV-infected patients with positive respiratory samples for acid-fast bacilli and pulmonary infiltrates. Patients with such findings in whom presumptive therapy for tuberculosis has failed should receive broad-spectrum antimycobacterial chemotherapy until final identification is available.