Aberrant origin of the right subclavian artery occurs in up to 1% of the population and can result in a wide range of symptoms. In this report, two cases of this anomaly are presented. In the first case, a patient developed fatal group A streptococcal aortitis. In the second case, the patient complained of chronic cough and intermittent dyspnea. The embryologic genesis of this abnormality is discussed and the current literature is summarized. Although relatively uncommon, it is important to consider this vascular anomaly in the differential diagnosis of patients with dysphagia, dyspnea, chest pain, fever, or mediastinal widening evidenced on chest roentgenography.