Chemoradiotherapy combined with hyperthermia was administered to 35 patients with advanced esophageal carcinoma who either required preoperative treatment or had nonresectable disease. As a rule, each patient received a total dose of 30 Gy in 15 daily fractions of 2 Gy, 5 d/wk. Bleomycin or cisplatin, in combination with fluorouracil, was employed as chemotherapy. Hyperthermia was applied by intraluminal heating twice a week for a total of six sessions using an apparatus (IH-500T; Japan Crescent Co Ltd; Tokyo, Japan) (radiofrequency, 13.56 MHz) with an intraesophageal applicator and two extracorporeal applicators placed on the chest and back. This treatment method obtained a response rate of 80%, consisting of a complete response rate of 22.9% and partial response of 57.1%. In 15 cases, the tumor became resectable (resectability rate, 42.9%) following treatment. The histologic study of the resected specimens revealed absence of viable tumor cells in five patients (33.3% of the resected cases) (markedly effective), and in six patients (40.0%), the combined therapy was considered to be moderately effective. No complications considered due to hyperthermia itself were recognized. The overall 5-year survival rate was 11.8%. In conclusion, chemoradiotherapy combined with hyperthermia was locally effective, yielding an overall response of 80.0%. However, the prognosis of the patients remains unfavorable. Advanced esophageal carcinoma requires treatment taking into account lymphatic and hematogenic metastasis at the beginning of treatment.