Lymphoma, mediastinal cysts, and neurogenic neoplasms are the most common primary middle and posterior mediastinal tumors. Lymphoma may involve the anterior, middle and/or posterior mediastinum, frequently as lymphadenopathy or as a discrete mass. Foregut cysts are common congenital mediastinal cysts and frequently arise in the middle mediastinum. Pericardial cysts are rare. Schwannoma and neurofibroma are benign peripheral nerve neoplasms, represent the most common mediastinal neurogenic tumors, and rarely degenerate into malignant tumors of nerve sheath origin. Sympathetic ganglia tumors include benign ganglioneuroma and malignant ganglioneuroblastoma and neuroblastoma. Lateral thoracic meningocele is a rare cause of a posterior mediastinal mass.