Radiology and surgery are not competing but are complementary modalities in the care of patients with lung cancer. In certain areas, such as evaluation of the solitary pulmonary nodule, radiologic studies can have an important impact on patient care. Mediastinal staging with imaging studies is inexact, and CT may be most effective as a road map for more definitive surgical staging. MRI currently offers no advantages over CT in staging of the mediastinum but can be helpful in evaluation of parts of the chest not well demonstrated on axial images. A discussion of newer nuclear medicine imaging modalities is included.