Thoracic radiotherapy is widely used in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Its role as adjuvant treatment before or after surgery has not been established clearly. In patients with locally advanced disease, the main cause of failure is the absence of local control. Recently, three treatment approaches have shown a beneficial effect on overall survival in randomized trials conducted in this group of patients: sequential combination of thoracic radiotherapy and cisplatin-based chemotherapy, concomitant use of radiation and daily low-dose cisplatin therapy, and hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy. Another area that merits further investigation is the role of adjuvant surgery.