Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is characterized by deposition of calcium phosphate within the alveolar airspaces. There is currently no effective medical therapy and affected individuals may progress to end-stage lung disease requiring transplantation. Two patients with PAM underwent bilateral sequential lung transplantation. This study reviews the clinical manifestations of PAM and discusses the particular difficulties that may be encountered in the use of lung transplantation as treatment for this uncommon disease. Also addressed is the question of recurrence in the allograft.