Atrial fibrillation is the most common cardiac arrhythmia requiring treatment. Limitations of medical treatment have prompted development of nonpharmacologic therapies for this arrhythmia. These are aimed at ventricular rate control during atrial fibrillation, termination of the arrhythmia, and/or prevention of recurrences. Ventricular rate control can be achieved with transcatheter ablation or modification of the atrioventricular node. The MAZE operation is effective in preventing arrhythmia recurrence, but because it requires cardiac surgery, its appeal is limited. Development of the technique for direct transcatheter ablation of atrial fibrillation is eagerly anticipated and may represent the standard curative treatment of the future. In appropriately selected patients, implantable device therapy may play an important role in the treatment of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.