Sclerosing mediastinitis is an uncommon disease associated with a multiplicity of clinical syndromes. The cause of this disorder is probably an abnormal fibroproliferative response to an inflammatory stimulus, most commonly a granulomatous infection secondary to Histoplasma capsulatum. The pathophysiology of this disease is predicated on the encasement of mediastinal vital organ structures within a dense fibrotic mass. This mass appears to emanate from an invasive chronic inflammatory process causing erosion as well as external compression of these structures. The following case reports illustrate the diversity of this disease entity, representing a patient population from the Ohio River Valley, endemic for histoplasmosis. The purpose of this report is to elucidate the various clinical manifestations of sclerosing mediastinitis and to correlate the pathologic process with a rational approach to treatment.