A five-year-old girl had congenital central hypoventilation syndrome and mediastinal and adrenal tumors. The mediastinal mass was though to be present, retrospectively, for at least four years prior to surgery. Pathology of the excised tumors revealed benign ganglioneuromas. This is the first case reported of an association between CCHS and multiple ganglioneuromas. This suggests that CCHS, like neural crest tumors, may result from maldevelopment of the embryonic neural crest.