To describe the affective changes associated with sleep restoration we assessed psychologic symptoms using the Profile of Mood States questionnaire before and two months after treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) in seven men with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The results were compared with those of a control group of patients with OSA who did not receive NCPAP. Two of six mood factors, depression and fatigue, improved significantly following treatment with NCPAP. Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) score was used to assess global mood differences. The mean TMD score for the patients before treatment was 1.7 and during treatment decreased to -7.6 (p less than 0.05). This mean decrease of 9.3 in the TMD score implies generalized improvement in mood. These findings support the opinion that sleep fragmentation and abnormalities of respiration during sleep are at least partially responsible for affective changes seen in sleep apnea. These psychologic disturbances improve after treatment with NCPAP.