The combination of pulmonary abscess and empyema due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa is presented. Pseudomonas infections of the lungs frequently occur in patients with diminished host resistance, often receiving antibiotics or corticosteroids, and frequently in a hospital. The resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to the more commonly used antibiotics as penicillin, tetracycline, chloromycetin and kanamycin is known. These features are exemplified by the case reported. The empyema was managed with drainage, enzyme instillation into the pleural space and appropriate systemic antibiotics. At autopsy the characteristic pathologic features of Pseudomonas infection were not found. Review of the world literature of Pseudomonas lung abscess and empyema shows their frequent occurrence in persons with underlying diseases, their poor response to medical treatment, and high mortality.