Tuberculosis of the trachea and both main bronchi is a frequent finding in post-mortem examinations of patients dying of tuberculosis.
Tuberculous ulcerations are the most common lesions. Microscopic lesions help to swell the positive figures.
Thickening due to tuberculous granulation tissue and fibrosis, with resultant stenosis, is an infrequent autopsy finding in the trachea, is occasionally noted in the main bronchi, but is often seen to an advanced degree in the bronchi draining the cavities.
Tracheo-bronchial tuberculosis is most common in those cases with large pulmonary cavities and is probably due to surface implantation with the tubercle bacilli.
The presence of tracheal or main bronchial tuberculosis usually signifies tuberculosis of greater severity within the lungs.