PURPOSE: Although many prior studies have addressed the mechanism of breathing control, this topic remains a challenging and complex research area. Most prior studies have utilized average measurements over a period of time, however Band et al reported the ΔpH(PCO2)/Δt was a breathing control factor.
METHODS: Basic Information for breathing control: Signals: O2, CO2 and H+; Sensors: fast=Carotid body and aorta body, slow=medulla; Fast and slow sensors work on integrative center by different time-phase for each breath.
RESULTS: New Theory: Lung breath generated oscillations of arterial O2, CO2 and H+ signals via carotid body and aorta arch (“fast”) and medullary chemo-receptors (“slow”,~20s) are integrated in the respiratory control center to stimulate the next (another) breath. The peripheral chemo-receptors (carotid body and aorta arch) are sensitive to oscillation information [ΔPO2(SO2)/Δt, ΔPCO2/Δt, Δ[H]/Δt] without time delay is dominant trigger for the next breath; and integrative center’s gain is adjusted by 20s ago’s mean (averaged) level of the signals, due to the arterial oscillation information damped by the tissue diffusing with time delay. The effect of central sensors control the “GAIN”/sensitivity of central integrative system. The respiratory integrative center in the central nervous system integrates the input from these fast and slow sensors, and combines that information from the two sensors to generate the next breath.
CONCLUSIONS: Lung breath generated O2, CO2 and [H+] oscillations is the trigger of next breath via fast sensors (carotid and aorta) and the slow central medullary censors control the “gain” of breath with longer time delay in collaboration with an integrative respiratory center. Left ventricle function, via damping oscillatory amplitude and delay time phase of signals from alveolar to arterial, to effect on the breathing.
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Circulation and respiration are coupling regulated. It may explain the heart-lung interconnection in the clinical medicine.
DISCLOSURE: The following authors have nothing to disclose: Xing-Guo Sun
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