PURPOSE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is often linked with psychiatric conditions like anxiety. This study assessed risk of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and anxiety levels among patients with metabolic syndrome in blacks.
METHODS: Data was obtained from a larger study investigating effects of OSA treatment in the primary-care setting. A total of 312 patients with metabolic syndrome provided subjective and clinical data. Patients were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome using criteria articulated in the joint interim statement for harmonizing the metabolic syndrome. We assessed OSA risk using the Apnea Risk Evaluation System (ARES), defining high risk as a total ARES score ≥6. Patients also rated their anxiety level using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Patients provided informed consent under the supervision of the IRB at SUNY Downstate Medical Center. Data was coded and analyzed using SPSS 19.0.
RESULTS: The average age of the sample was 62.4 ±13 years; 66% were female. According to National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel, means (S.D) of the metabolic syndrome components were: B/P: 135/75 ±18/12 mm Hg, waist circumference: ♂= 45.1 ±15.1 inches; ♀= 44.1 ±7.8 inches, HgBA1C: 7.8 ±1.8, Fasting Blood Glucose: 142.0 ±68.0 mg/dL, HDL: ♂= 45.1 ±17.9 mg/dL; ♀= 49.8 ±17.0 mg/dL, Triglycerides: ♂= 159.1 ±102.7 mg/dL; ♀= 137.9 ±76.9 mg/dL. Using the ARES screener, we estimated that 32% were at high risk for OSA; based on the BAI, the average anxiety level was 9.09 ±9.13. ANCOVA was used to test the hypothesis that individuals with high OSA risk have higher levels of anxiety. Results showed that patients at high OSA risk had significantly higher levels of anxiety (F=8.3, P<0.005); model adjusted for effects of age, gender, income, and education.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that black patients with metabolic syndrome and at high risk for OSA have a significant association with anxiety.
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Black patients with metabolic syndrome and at high risk for OSA should be screened for the presence of anxiety.
DISCLOSURE: The following authors have nothing to disclose: Abhishek Pandey, Margaret Donat, Sidrah Mahmud, Peregrino Brimah, Ferdinand Zizi, Girardin Jean-Louis
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