PURPOSE: 1. To investigate the associations between exposures to smoking, diet, and physical exercise and the risk of lung cancer, and, separately, of major cell types (adenocarcinoma, squamous-cell, small-cell) in a population of Czech women and men. 2. Where feasible, to reveal interactions (effect modificatons) between smoking and diet/physical exercise.
METHODS: The hospital-based case-control study was conducted at a large University Hospital in 1998-2008.
RESULTS: Cell-type specific sets: Variations in risk of adenocarcinoma/or squamous-cell-/or small-cell carcinoma in relation to diet/physical exercise, gender and cell types: Elevated risk of squamous cell cancer appeared in men for intake of fat foods. Protective effects: Both wine and physical exercise were inversely related to the risk of adenocarcinoma and small cell cancer in women only. Protective effects for the intake of apples were observed among men in relation to squamous cell (OR=0.67, 95%CI 0.46-0.98) and small cell (OR=0.51, 95%CI 0.30-0.87) cancers. Inverse association between the risk of squamous cell cancer and intake of other fruits was found both for women (OR=0.63, 95%CI 0.44-0.92) and for men (OR=0.62, 95%CI 0.42-0.92), for intake of vitamin supplements for women only. All Women, All Men: Variations in lung cancer risk in relation to diet/physical exercise, gender and smoking history: Elevated risk : in Smoking men for fat foods. Protective effects were observed: - in Nonsmoking women: for black tea (OR=0.69, 95%CI 0.49-0.98). - in Smoking women: for physical exercise, wine, and vitamin supplements. - in Smoking men: for other fruit, and spirits (OR=0.64, 95%CI 0.44-0.93). Interactions between smoking and dietary items: In women for black tea (P=0.034), in men for spirits (P=0.044).
CONCLUSIONS: Among both men and women, dietary items and physical exercise may contribute to variation in risk of lung cancer. Smoking is the main determinant of all cell types of lung cancer, however, its effect is weaker on adenocarcinoma than on squamous-, small-cell cancers.
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Dietary items and physical exercise may contribute to variation in risk of lung cancer, the future research in this area is needed.
DISCLOSURE: The following authors have nothing to disclose: Norbert Pauk, Antonin Kubik, Petr Zatloukal, Vladimir Koblizek, Ladislav Tomasek
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