PURPOSE: Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) show evidence of systemic inflammation including coronary artery disease, diabetes, and hypertension. However, the association between COPD and metabolic syndrome (MS) has not been clearly shown by epidemiological studies in Japan. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between airflow obstruction and MS or its components.
METHODS: The study included 7,189 male subjects, aged 45-88 years, who underwent a comprehensive health screening at the Japanese Red Cross Kumamoto Health Care Center. The spirometric criteria for diagnosis of airflow obstruction were forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) / forced vital capacity (FVC) <70. The severity of airflow obstruction was defined according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guideline. Normal lung function was defined as FEV1/FVC ≥ 70% and FEV1 ≥ 80% predicted. MS was defined in accordance with the revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Our research protocol was approved by the Human Ethics Committee of Kumamoto University and Japanese Red Cross Kumamoto Health Care Center.
RESULTS: The prevalence of airflow obstruction was 9.0% and the frequency of MS was 25.6%. In logistic regression models adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking, and alcohol, the risk of MS was higher in subjects with airflow obstruction of GOLD stage II-IV compared to those with normal lung function [odds radio (OR), 1.33; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.01-1.76)]. Of the MS components, waist circumference (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.24-2.50) and blood pressure (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.08-1.74) were associated with airflow obstruction of GOLD stage II-IV, after controlling for potential confounders.
CONCLUSIONS: Airflow obstruction of GOLD stage II-IV was associated with MS, and, in particular, its waist circumference and blood pressure components in Japanese men.
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: It is important to attempt to identify illnesses that are frequently linked with COPD and assess their impact on the way the disease progresses. These findings may guide future clinical practice.
DISCLOSURE: The following authors have nothing to disclose: Yayoi Funakoshi, Hisamitsu Omori, Ayumi Onoue, Shuichi Mihara, Yasuhiro Ogata, Takahiko Katoh
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