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Thrombocytosis in Patients With Severe Community-Acquired Pneumonia FREE TO VIEW

Hugues Georges, MD; Nicolas Brogly, MD; David Olive, MD; Olivier Leroy, MD
Author and Funding Information

From the Intensive Care Unit (Drs Georges, Brogly, and Olive) and the Infectious Diseases Department (Dr Leroy), Hopital Chatilliez.

Correspondence to: Hugues Georges, MD, Service de Réanimation et Maladies Infectieuses, 155 Rue du Pdt Coty, 59208 Tourcoing, France; e-mail: hgeorges@ch-tourcoing.fr


Financial/nonfinancial disclosures: The authors have reported to CHEST that no potential conflicts of interest exist with any companies/organizations whose products or services may be discussed in this article.

Reproduction of this article is prohibited without written permission from the American College of Chest Physicians (http://www.chestpubs.org/site/misc/reprints.xhtml).


© 2010 American College of Chest Physicians


Chest. 2010;138(5):1279. doi:10.1378/chest.10-0871
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To the Editor:

In a recent article in CHEST (February 2010), Mirsaeidi and colleagues1 found that thrombocytosis (platelet count > 400,000 cells/μL) at the time of hospital admission was a strong predictive factor of mortality in a population of 500 patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). These results contrast with those of numerous previous studies in which thrombocytopenia was the main platelet disorder associated with worse clinical outcome.2-4 We believe this conclusion could be explained by the moderate severity of CAP. Among the studied population, only 58% of patients belong to pneumonia severity index risk class 4 and 5, and admission to an ICU concerned only 17.2% of patients. Mortality was relatively low at 10.8% of patients. The authors recommended new studies focusing on the cause of death to determine if an elevated platelet count in patients with CAP is just a marker of the inflammatory response or if it is in part responsible for an increase in mortality. We have recently published a multicenter retrospective study showing, in 822 patients admitted to an ICU for severe CAP, that severe thrombocytopenia (< 50,000 cells/μL) was an independent predictor of mortality.5 We looked at the impact of thrombocytosis in our patients. The overall ICU mortality rate was 35.4%. Thrombocytosis was present in 70 (5.7%) patients. Among these patients, 24 (34.3%) died. We did not find any difference in outcome compared with patients with thrombocytosis (P < .7). Our patients were more severely ill, with mechanical ventilation required within 12 h following ICU admission in 77.6% of patients and septic shock present in 30.4% of patients. When considering the cause of death according to platelet numbers, we found it was essentially related to sepsis complications in patients with thrombocytopenia (septic refractory shock, n = 18; multiorgan failure, n = 17; ARDS, n = 11; nosocomial pneumonia, n = 8), while in patients with thrombocytosis, the cause of death was mostly related to complications of ICU stay or associated comorbidity (P < .007; COPD, n = 3; cerebral vascular ischemia, n = 2; cancer, n = 2; mesenteric ischemia, n = 1; myocardial infarction, n = 1) (Table 1).

Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 1 —Cause of Death by Platelet Cell Counts

Thus, we believe that thrombocytopenia remains an important predictor of outcome in patients with severe CAP. In these patients, thrombocytosis is not associated with worse outcome.

Mirsaeidi M, Peyrani P, Aliberti S, et al. Thrombocytopenia and thrombocytosis at time of hospitalization predict mortality in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Chest. 2010;1372:416-420. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Brun-Buisson C, Doyon F, Carlet J, et al; French ICU Group for Severe Sepsis French ICU Group for Severe Sepsis Incidence, risk factors, and outcome of severe sepsis and septic shock in adults. A multicenter prospective study in intensive care units. JAMA. 1995;27412:968-974. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Strauss R, Wehler M, Mehler K, Kreutzer D, Koebnick C, Hahn EG. Thrombocytopenia in patients in the medical intensive care unit: bleeding prevalence, transfusion requirements, and outcome. Crit Care Med. 2002;308:1765-1771. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Vandijck DM, Blot SI, De Waele JJ, Hoste EA, Vandewoude KH, Decruyenaere JM. Thrombocytopenia and outcome in critically ill patients with bloodstream infection. Heart Lung. 2010;391:21-26. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Brogly N, Devos P, Boussekey N, Georges H, Chiche A, Leroy O. Impact of thrombocytopenia on outcome of patients admitted to ICU for severe community-acquired pneumonia. J Infect. 2007;552:136-140. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 

Figures

Tables

Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 1 —Cause of Death by Platelet Cell Counts

References

Mirsaeidi M, Peyrani P, Aliberti S, et al. Thrombocytopenia and thrombocytosis at time of hospitalization predict mortality in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Chest. 2010;1372:416-420. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Brun-Buisson C, Doyon F, Carlet J, et al; French ICU Group for Severe Sepsis French ICU Group for Severe Sepsis Incidence, risk factors, and outcome of severe sepsis and septic shock in adults. A multicenter prospective study in intensive care units. JAMA. 1995;27412:968-974. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Strauss R, Wehler M, Mehler K, Kreutzer D, Koebnick C, Hahn EG. Thrombocytopenia in patients in the medical intensive care unit: bleeding prevalence, transfusion requirements, and outcome. Crit Care Med. 2002;308:1765-1771. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Vandijck DM, Blot SI, De Waele JJ, Hoste EA, Vandewoude KH, Decruyenaere JM. Thrombocytopenia and outcome in critically ill patients with bloodstream infection. Heart Lung. 2010;391:21-26. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Brogly N, Devos P, Boussekey N, Georges H, Chiche A, Leroy O. Impact of thrombocytopenia on outcome of patients admitted to ICU for severe community-acquired pneumonia. J Infect. 2007;552:136-140. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
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