Financial/nonfinancial disclosures: The authors have reported to CHEST the following conflicts of interest: Dr Sørheim received lecture fees from AstraZeneca in 2008 and a travel grant and lecture fees from GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) in 2009. Dr Bakke has received all together 1,000 Euros from GSK and 1,000 Euros from AstraZeneca in fees for speaking and is a principal investigator in a GSK-sponsored study. Dr Campbell has a significant financial interest in HerediLab, Inc; has served on and chaired advisory boards and medical educational activities for CSL Behring; and served as a consultant to Talecris Biotherapeutics. Dr Agustí has received research funding and honoraria for speaking engagements and consultant work from GSK, AstraZeneca, Almirall, ALTANA, and Boehringer Ingelheim. Dr Rennard has consulted with, received grants from, or received honoraria for lectures from many companies with interest in COPD and smoking cessation (details available in the full disclosure statement). Dr Vestbo received 276.000 Danish kroner in 1985 in support for a research project from a fund financed by the Scandinavian Tobacco Company. Dr Paré was the principal investigator of a project that was funded by GSK to develop CT scan-based algorithms to quantify emphysema and airway disease in COPD; was the principal investigator of a Merck Frosst-supported research program to investigate gene expression in the lungs of patients with COPD; established a new contract with Merck to discover genetic predictors of gene expression in lung tissue; and sits on an advisory board for Talecris Biotherapeutics, who makes α1-antitrypsin replacement therapy. Dr Coxson received $4,800 in 2006 and 2007 for serving on the steering committee for the ECLIPSE project for GSK; is the coinvestigator on two multicenter studies sponsored by GSK and has received travel expenses to attend meetings related to the project; and has three contract service agreements with GSK to quantify the CT scans in subjects with COPD and a service agreement with Spiration Inc to measure changes in lung volume in subjects with severe emphysema. A percentage of Dr Coxson’s salary between 2003 and 2006 ($15,000/y) derives from contract funds provided to Dr Paré by GSK for the development of validated methods to measure emphysema and airway disease using CT imaging. Dr Coxson is the coinvestigator (D Sin, principal investigator) on a Canadian Institutes of Health-Industry (Wyeth) partnership grant. Dr Lomas has received a research grant and fees for speaking and acts as a consultant for GSK. Dr Silverman has received grant support for two studies of COPD genetics and consulting fees from GSK; has received consulting fees from AstraZeneca; and has received honoraria from Wyeth, Bayer, GSK, and AstraZeneca. Drs Gulsvik, Pillai, Johannessen, Gaarder, Calverley, Donner, Make, Wouters, Levy, and Hersh have reported to CHEST that no potential conflicts of interest exist with any companies/organizations whose products or services may be discussed in this article.