It is also important to consider the availability of new parenteral antibiotics for the treatment of VAP. Two new antibiotics targeting MDR GNB (ceftolozane-tazobactam, ceftazidime-avibactam) have recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, and over the next 3 to 5 years, several other new antibiotics directed against MDR GNB are likely to become available including meropenem-vaborbactam, plazomicin, eravacycline, relebactam, brilacidin, BAL30072, aztreonam-avibactam, carbapenem combined with ME 1071, and S-649266, a novel siderophore cephalosporin. These agents will potentially provide enhanced activity against β-lactamase producers, carbapenem-resistant bacteria, and in some cases even metallo-β-lactamase-producing bacteria. Therefore, the use of aerosolized antibiotics needs to be considered against the backdrop of these novel agents. In addition to new antibiotics, there has been progress in the development of vaccines and immunotherapies directed against MDR GNB. A vaccine candidate targeting Pseudomonas aeruginosa is in clinical development, and the results from a phase II/III clinical trial in patients in the ICU who require mechanical ventilation should be available soon. Similarly, the development of monoclonal antibodies targeting virulence factors in MDR GNB, such as the type 3 secretion mechanism in P aeruginosa, hold promise for future nonantibiotic therapy for VAP.